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Retinoids reduce pigment formation by several mechanisms and have a direct inhibitory action on the pigment-producing cells (melanocytes).

They also cause loss of the surface skin cells and stimulate the formation of new cells underneath.

Retinoids are an essential element of Triple Combination Creams (TCC) as they reduce skin thinning otherwise associated with steroids.

Likewise, the steroids prevent skin irritation with the retinoid.

They are equally effective used alone and are particularly effective in the treatment of melasma.

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